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About the Court

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is a judicial body of constitutional review, which independently exercises judicial power by means of constitutional judicial proceedings.
 

Powers, rules of the establishment and operation of the Constitutional Court are determined by the  Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Constitutional Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (hereinafter the FCL).
 

Composition, procedure of theestablishment and term of office (Art. 4 of the FCL)
 
The Constitutional Court consists of 19 judges, appointed by the Federation Council upon nomination by the President of the Russian Federation. The Constitutional Court performs its functions if no less than two thirds of the total number of Judges are in office. The powers of the Constitutional Court are of unlimited duration.
 
 
 
• Upon application by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federation Council or at least one fifth of its members, the State Duma or at least one of fifth of its members, the Government of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, legislative and executive bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation the Constitutional Court decides on conformity with the Constitution of the Russian Federation:
 
- of federal laws, acts of the President, the Federation Council, the State Duma, the Government of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation;
 
- of agreements between bodies of State power of the Russian Federation, between bodies of State power and constituent entities of the Russian Federation, as well as between supreme bodies of state power of constituent entities of the Russian Federation;
 
- of international treaties that have not come into force.
• Resolves competence disputes between federal bodies of State power, between Federal bodies of state power and constituent entities of the Russian Federation as well as between supreme bodies of state power of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, if such competence is defined by the Constitution and there are no alternative means to settle the dispute;
 
• Interprets the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
 
• Upon complaints about violations of constitutional rights and freedoms of citizens, verifies the constitutionality of a law that has been applied in a specific case.
 
• Upon request by a court verifies the constitutionality of a law that ought to be applied by a respective court in a specific case.
  
Rules on the observance of a prescribed procedure for charging the President of the Russian Federation with high treason or other grave offense
 
Governing principles (Art. 5 of the FCL)
 
Independence, collegiality, publicity, adversarial system and equality of arms.
 
Constitutional judicial proceedings (Art.20 of the FCL)
 
The Constitutional Court considers and decides cases in sessions with holding hearings or (in cases, stipulated by the FCL) without holding hearings.
 
Binding nature of the decisions (Art.6  of the FCL) 
 
Decisions of the Constitutional Court are obligatory throughout the territory of the Russian Federation for all representative, executive and judicial bodies of state power, local self-government, enterprises, agencies, organizations, public officials, citizens and their associations.
 
Decisions of the Constitutional Court are directly applicable, requiring no approval from any other body. 
Status of the judges (Chapter II of the FCL)
 
 
•A Judge must be a Russian citizen no less than 40 of age, who is of high moral character, has higher juridical education and work experience in the legal profession of at least fifteen years, with recognised high qualifications in the sphere of law.
 
•A Judge may not publicly express his or her opinion about any question, which in future may be subject to consideration by the Court.
 
•A Judge may not engage in political activities, belong to political parties and movements, conduct political advocacy or campaigning.
 
•A Judge may not hold any other public or social office or engage in entrepreneurial or any other remunerative activities, with the exception of teaching, academic and creative activities.
 
•Judges are appointed for an indefinite term of office, but are subject (except for the President and Vice Presidents of the Court) to the age limit of 70 years.



© Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, 2008-2018