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CHAPTER 3
THE FEDERAL STRUCTURE
 
Article 65
1. The Russian Federation shall be composed of the following constituent entities of the Russian Federation:
Republic of Adygeya (Adygeya), Republic of Al­tai, Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Buryatia, Republic of Crimea1, Republic of Daghestan, Republic of Ingushetia2, Kabardino-Balkarian Republic, Republic of Kalmy­kia3, Karachayevo-Cherkessian Republic, Republic of Karelia, Komi Republic, Republic of Marij El, Republic of Mordovia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Republic of North Osetia — Alania4, Republic of Tatarstan (Tatarstan), Republic of Tuva, Udmurtian   Republic, Republic of Khakasia, Chechen Republic, Chuvashi Republic —Chuvashia5;      
Altai kray, Zabaikalie kray6, Kamchatka kray7, Krasnodar kray, Krasnoyarsk kray8, Perm kray9, Primorie kray, Stavropol kray, Khabarovsk kray;
Amur oblast, Arkhangelsk oblast, Astrakhan oblast, Belgorod oblast, Bryansk oblast, Vladimir ob­last, Volgograd oblast, Vologda oblast, Voronezh oblast, Ivanovo oblast, Irkutsk oblast10, Kaliningrad oblast, Kaluga oblast, Kemerovo oblast, Kirov oblast, Kostroma oblast, Kurgan oblast, Kursk oblast, Leningrad oblast, Lipetsk oblast, Magadan oblast, Moscow oblast, Murmansk oblast, Nizhni Novgorod oblast, Novgorod oblast, Novosibirsk oblast, Omsk oblast, Orenburg oblast, Oryol oblast, Penza oblast, Pskov oblast, Rostov oblast, Ryazan oblast, Samara oblast, Saratov oblast, Sakhalin oblast, Sverdlovsk oblast,  Smolensk oblast, Tambov oblast, Tver oblast, Tomsk oblast, Tula oblast, Tyumen oblast, Ulyanovsk oblast, Chelyabinsk oblast,  Yaroslavl oblast;
Moscow, St. Petersburg, Sevastopol11 — cities of federal signifi­cance;
the Jewish autonomous oblast;
Nenets autonomous okrug, Khanty-Mansijsk autonomous okrug Yugra12, Chukotka autono­mous okrug, Yamalo-Nenets autonomous okrug.
2. Admission into the Russian Federation and creation of a new constituent entity shall take place in accordance with the procedure established by fe­deral constitutional law.
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1 Appellation of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation – Republic of Crimea – has been given in accordance with the Federal Constitutional Law of 21st March, 2014 No. 6-ФКЗ “On Admission of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and Creation of New Constituent Entities in the Composition of the Russian Federation – the Republic of Crimea and the City of Federal Significance Sevastopol’” (Collection of Laws of the Russian Federation, 2014, No. 12, Art. 1201).
2 The new name of the Republic is given in accordance with the Edict of the President of the Russian Federation No. 20 dated January 9, 1996 "On inclusion of new names of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 1996, No. 3, Article 152).
3 The new name of the Republic is given in accordance with the Edict of the President of the Russian Federation No. 173 dated February 10, 1996 "On inclusion of new name of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in Arti­cle 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation" (Legisla­tion of the Russian Federation, 1996, No. 7, Article 676).
4 The new name of the Republic is given in accordance with the Edict of the President of the Russian Federation No. 20 dated January 9, 1996 "On inclusion of new names of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation in Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 1996, No. 3, Article 152).
5 The new name of the Republic is given in accordance with the Edict of the President of the Russian Federation No. 679 dated June 9, 2001 "On inclusion of new name of the constitu­ent entity of the Russian Federation in Article 65 of the Con­stitution of the Russian Federation" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2001, No. 24, Article 2421).
6 The name of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation — Zabaikalie kray — is given in connection with its creation on March 1, 2008. The names of the constituent enti­ties of the Russian Federation — Chita oblast and Aginsk Buryat autonomous okrug — which ceased to exist on March 1, 2008, are excluded from Part 1, Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation on the basis of the Federal constitu­tional law No. 5-FKZ dated July 21, 2007 "On creation in the Russian Federation of the new constituent entity of the Rus­sian Federation resulted from the merge of the Chita oblast and Aginsk Buryat autonomous okrug" (Legislation of the Rus­sian Federation, 2007, No. 30, Article 3745).
7 The name of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation — Kamchatka kray — is given in connection with its creation on July 1, 2007. The names of the constituent enti­ties of the Russian Federation — Kamchatka oblast and Koryak autonomous okrug — which ceased to exist on July 1, 2007, are excluded from Part 1, Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation on the basis of the Federal constitu­tional law No. 2-FKZ dated July 12, 2006 "On creation in the Russian Federation of the new constituent entity of the Rus­sian Federation resulted from the merge of the Kamchatka oblast and Koryak autonomous okrug" (Legislation of the Rus­sian Federation, 2006, No. 29, Article 3119).
8 The name of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation — Krasnoyarsk kray — is given in connection with its creation on January 1, 2007. The names of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation — Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) autonomous okrug and Evenk autonomous okrug — which ceased to exist on January 1, 2007, are excluded from Part 1, Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federa­tion on the basis of the Federal constitutional law No. 6-FKZ dated October 14, 2005 "On creation in the Russian Federa­tion of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation resulted from the merge of the Krasnoyarsk kray, Taimyr (Dolgano-Nenets) autonomous okrug and Evenk autonomous okrug" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2005, No. 42, Article 4212).
9 The name of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation — Perm kray — is given in connection with its cre­ation on December 1, 2005. The names of the constituent en­tities of the Russian Federation — Perm oblast and Komi-Permyatski autonomous okrug — which ceased to exist on De­cember 1, 2005, are excluded from Part 1, Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation on the basis of the Fe­deral constitutional law No. 1-FKZ dated March 25, 2004 "On creation in the Russian Federation of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation resulted from the merge of the Perm oblast and Komi-Permyatski autonomous okrug" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2004, No. 13, Arti­cle 1110).
10 The name of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation — Irkutsk oblast — is given in connection with its creation on January 1, 2008. The name of the constitu­ent entity of the Russian Federation — Ust-Ordyn Buryat autonomous okrug — which ceased to exist on January 1, 2008, is excluded from Part 1, Article 65 of the Constitu­tion of the Russian Federation on the basis of the Federal constitutional law No. 6-FKZ dated December 30, 2006 "On creation in the Russian Federation of the new consti­tuent entity of the Russian Federation resulted from the merge of the Irkutsk oblast and Ust-Ordyn Buryat autono­mous okrug" (Legislation of the Russian Federation, 2007, No. 1, Article J).
11 Appellation of the new constituent entity of the Russian Federation – the city of federal significance Sevastopol’ – has been given in accordance with the Federal Constitutional Law of 21st March, 2014 No. 6-ФЗ “On Admission of the Republic of Crimea into the Russian Federation and Creation of New Constituent Entities in the Composition of the Russian Federation – the Republic of Crimea and the City of Federal Significance Sevastopol’” (Collection of Laws of the Russian Federation, 2014, No. 12, Art. 1201). 
12 The new name of the autonomous okrug is given in ac­cordance with the Edict of the President of the Russian Fede­ration No. 841 dated July 25, 2003 "On inclusion of new name of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in Arti­cle 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation" (Legisla­tion of the Russian Federation, 2003, No. 30, Article 3051).
 
 
Article 66
1. The status of a republic shall be determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the constitution of the republic.
2. The status of a kray, oblast, city of federal sig­nificance, autonomous oblast, autonomous okrug shall be determined by the Constitution of the Rus­sian Federation and the charter of the kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug which is adopted by the legisla­tive (representative) body of the corresponding con­stituent entity of the Russian Federation.
3. On a submission from legislative and execu­tive bodies of an autonomous oblast or autonomous okrug, a federal law concerning an autonomous oblast or autonomous okrug may be adopted.
4. Relations among autonomous okrugs within krays and oblasts may be regulated by federal law or by a treaty between State government bodies of the autonomous okrug and, accordingly, State govern­ment bodies of the kray or oblast.
5. The status of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation may be changed by mutual agreement between the Russian Federation and the constituent entity of the Russian Federation in accordance with federal constitutional law.
 
Article 67
1. The territory of the Russian Federation shall comprise the territories of its constituent entities, in­land waters and territorial sea and the air space over them.
2. The Russian Federation shall have sovereign rights and exercise jurisdiction on the continental shelf and in the exclusive economic zone of the Rus­sian Federation in accordance with the procedure specified by federal law and norms of international law.
3. Borders between constituent entities of the Rus­sian Federation may be changed upon their mutual consent.
   
Article 68
1. The Russian language shall be the State language on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
2. Republics shall have the right to establish their own State languages. In State government bodies, local self-government bodies and State institutions of republics they shall be used together with the State language of the Russian Federation.
3. The Russian Federation shall guarantee all of its peoples the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and develop­ment.
 
Article 69
The Russian Federation shall guarantee the rights of indigenous small peoples in accordance with the universally recognized principles and norms of inter­national law and international treaties of the Russian Federation.
 
Article 70
1. The state flag, emblem and anthem of the Rus­sian Federation, their description and the procedure for the official use thereof shall be established by fede­ral constitutional law.
2. The capital of the Russian Federation shall be the city of Moscow. The status of the capital shall be established by federal law.
 
Article 71
The Russian Federation shall have jurisdiction over:
a) the adoption and amending of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws, control over compliance therewith;
b) the federative structure and the territory of the Russian Federation;
c) regulation and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms; citizenship in the Russian Fe­deration, regulation and protection of the rights of national minorities;
d) establishment of the system of federal legisla­tive, executive and judicial bodies, the procedure for their organisation and activities, the formation of federal State government bodies;
e) federal State property and administration thereof;
f) establishment of the basic principles of federal policy and federal programmes in the sphere of State, economic, ecological, social, cultural and na­tional development of the Russian Federation;
g) establishment of the basic legal principles for the unified market; financial, currency, credit and customs regulation; money emission; the basic prin­ciples of pricing policy, federal economic services, including federal banks;
h) the federal budget, federal taxes and levies, federal funds of regional development;
i) federal power-engineering systems, nuclear power, fissile materials, federal transport, railways, information and communication, activities in space;
j) foreign policy and international relations of the Russian Federation, international treaties of the Russian Federation, issues of war and peace;
k) foreign economic relations of the Russian Fede­ration;
l) defence and security; military production; de­termination of the procedure for selling and pur­chasing weapons, ammunition, military equipment and other military hardware; production of poiso­nous substances, narcotic substances and the proce­dure for their use;
m) determination of the status and protection of the State border, territorial sea, air space, the exclu­sive economic zone and the continental shelf of the Russian Federation;
n) the judicial system, public prosecution, criminal and criminal-executive legislation, amnesty and remission, civil legislation, procedural legislation, legal regulation of intellectual property13; 
o) federal collision law;
p) meteorological service, standards, metric and time systems, geodesy and cartography, names of geographical units, official statistics and accounting;
q) State awards and honorary titles of the Russian Federation;
r) federal State service
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13 The wording of Item “n” has been brought into line with the Law of the Russian Federation on amendment to the Constitution of the Russian Federation  of 5th February, 2014 No. 2-ФКЗ “On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation and Public Prosecution of the Russian Federation”, having entered into force as from the day of its official publication on 6th February, 2014 (Official Internet-Portal of legal information (www.pravo.gov.ru), 2014, 6th February, No. 0001201402060001).
  
 
Article 72
1. The following shall be within the joint jurisdic­tion of the Russian Federation and constituent enti­ties of the Russian Federation:
a) measures to ensure the correspondence of con­stitutions and laws of republics, the charters, laws and other normative legal acts of krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and auto­nomous okrugs to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws;
b) protection of human and civil rights and free­doms, protection of the rights of national minorities, ensuring lawfulness, law and order, public security; border zone regimes;
c) issues of the possession, utilisation and manage­ment of land and of subsurface, water and other na­tural resources;
d) demarcation of State property;
e) use of natural resources, protection of the envi­ronment and provisions for ecological safety; spe­cially protected natural territories, protection of his­torical and cultural monuments;
f) general issues of upbringing, education, science, culture, physical education and sport;
g) coordination of health care issues; protection of the family, maternity, fatherhood and childhood, social protection, including social security;
h) carrying out measures against catastrophes, natural disasters, epidemics and rectification of their consequences;
i) establishment of common principles of taxation and levies in the Russian Federation;
j) administrative, administrative-procedural, la­bour, family, housing, land, water and forest legisla­tion; legislation on subsurface resources and on envi­ronmental protection;
k) personnel of judicial and law enforcement bodies; lawyers, notaries;
l) protection of the traditional habitat and the tra­ditional way of life of small ethnic communities;
m) establishment of general principles of the or­ganisation of the system of State government and lo­cal self-government bodies;
n) coordination of international and foreign eco­nomic relations of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, observance of international agreements of the Russian Federation.
2. The provisions of this Article shall be equally valid for republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal sig­nificance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs.
 
Article 73
Outside the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and the powers of the Russian Fe­deration on issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall enjoy full State power.
 
Article 74
1. In the territory of the Russian Federation it shall not be permitted to establish custom borders, duties, levies or any other barriers to the free flow of goods, services and financial resources.
2. Restrictions on the movement of goods and services may be introduced in accordance with fede­ral law only to ensure security, to protect the life and health of people and to preserve nature and cultural values.
 
Article 75
1. The monetary unit in the Russian Federation shall be the rouble. Money emission shall be carried out exclusively by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The introduction and emission of other currencies in Russia shall not be permitted.
2. Protecting and ensuring the stability of the rou­ble shall be the principal function of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, which it shall fulfil independently of other State governmental bodies.
3. The system of taxes paid to the federal budget and the general principles of taxation and levies in the Russian Federation shall be determined by federal law.
4. State loans shall be issued in accordance with the procedure specified by federal law and shall be floated on a voluntary basis.
 
Article 76
1. On issues under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws and federal laws shall be adopted. These shall have direct force on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
2. On issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Rus­sian Federation and the constituent entities of the Rus­sian Federation, in addition to federal laws, laws and other normative legal acts of constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be issued which are adopted in accordance with those federal laws.
3. Federal laws may not conflict with federal con­stitutional laws.
4. Outside the limits of authority of the Russian Federation and of the joint jurisdiction of the Rus­sian Federation and constituent entities of the Rus­sian Federation republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autono­mous okrugs shall exercise their own legal regula­tion, including the adoption of laws and other nor­mative legal acts.
5. Laws and other normative legal acts of the con­stituent entities of the Russian Federation shall not conflict with federal laws which are adopted in ac­cordance with parts one and two of this Article. In the event of a conflict between a federal law and any other act issued in the Russian Federation, the fede­ral law shall prevail.
6. In the event of a conflict between a federal law and a normative legal act of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation issued in accordance with part four of this Article, the normative legal act of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation shall prevail.
 
Article 77
1. The system of State government bodies of re­publics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs shall be established by the constituent entities of the Russian Federation independently in accordance with the basic principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation and the general principles of the organisation of representative and executive State government bodies which are established by federal law.
2. Within the limits of the jurisdiction and powers of the Russian Federation on issues under the joint jurisdiction of the Russian Federation and the constituent entities of the Russian Federation federal executive government bodies and executive govern­ment bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall form a unified system of executive authority in the Russian Federation.
 
Article 78
1. Federal executive government bodies may, in order to exercise their powers, establish their own territorial bodies and appoint appropriate officials.
2. Federal executive government bodies, by agreement with executive government bodies of con­stituent entities of the Russian Federation, may de­legate some of their powers to the latter provided that this does not conflict with the Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws.
3. Executive government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, by agreement with federal executive government bodies, may delegate some of their powers to the latter.
4. The President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation shall provide for the implementation of the powers of fede­ral State power on the entire territory of the Russian Federation in accordance with the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
 
Article 79
The Russian Federation may participate in inter­state associations and transfer some of its powers to those associations in accordance with international treaties provided that this does not entail restrictions on human and civil rights and freedoms and does not conflict with the basic principles of the constitu­tional order of the Russian Federation.
 
 
 

 

 


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